Appendix 1: Glossary for Future Transport Strategy



NSW Long Term Transport Master Plan

NSW's first integrated transport plan, which brought together planning for freight and passenger movements across all modes of transport. Future Transport builds upon the 2012 Long Term Transport Master Plan and the commitments it has delivered.

30 minute city

A planning concept for a city in which people can easily access the places they need to visit on a daily basis within 30 minutes travel from where they live. In the Greater Sydney context the focus is on access to the nearest centre within 30 minutes by public transport, walking or cycling.


The ability for everyone, regardless of age, disability or special needs or where they live, to use and benefit from the transport system.

Active transport

Transport that is human powered, such as walking or cycling.

Aerial mobility


The use of aerial technology such as drones for transport. They may be used to deliver emergency transport services, disaster responses or last mile freight deliveries.


A metropolitan subregion where the layout, infrastructure, and economy are centred on an airport which serves as a multimodal "airport city" commercial core. It is similar in form to a traditional metropolis, which contains a central city commercial core and commuter-linked suburbs. The area around Western Sydney Airport (WSA) is envisaged to perform this role.

Alternative fuels

Fuels derived from sources other than petroleum (e.g. petrol or diesel). Examples of alternative fuels include ethanol, electricity, hydrogen, biodiesel and natural gas.


The extent to which a place, experience or service is pleasant, attractive or comfortable. Improved features, facilities or services may contribute to increased amenity.


Refers to computer software-based applications that are available across a wide range of devices which can provide information and service features directly to users.

Assisted mobility devices

Forms of transport that facilitate individual personal transportation. Examples include powered wheelchairs, scooters, segways, bicycles (‘e-bikes) and unicycles. Although many such devices are used by people with activity or mobility restrictions, mobility aids can be employed generally such as for transportation in place of private vehicles.


Use of control systems, such as computers, robots or artificial intelligence to undertake processes previously done by humans. Transport technology may be fully or partially automated, with the latter involving some form of human input to or management of the technology.

Big data

Describes high volumes of data obtained from the transport network that when analysed, can provide travel patterns and trends.

Car share

A model of car rental, with the ability to rent a car for a short period of time, often by the hour.


The area from which a location or service attracts people.

Central River City

One of the three cities of the Greater Sydney metropolis, anchored by Greater Parramatta in the Central City District.

Committed initiatives (0-10 years)

Projects, service changes or policies that have committed funding, are committed/ contractually committed, are for immediate detailed planning, or are part of key maintenance, renewal or safety programs. Some committed initiatives are subject to final business cases and funding.


When demand for a part of the transport network during a particular time nears its capacity, resulting in lower average speed, increased delay and unreliable journeys.

Connected and automated vehicle (CAV)

A connected vehicle is able to communicate wirelessly with other vehicles, infrastructure and/or devices. An automated vehicle has one or more element of the driving task that is automated and therefore does not require a human driver for at least part of the driving task. Levels of automation range from assisting the human driver with the driving task, through to fully and highly automated vehicles that can drive themselves. “Connected and automated vehicle” is widely used as a collective term to refer to the full range of different vehicles equipped with varying ranges and capabilities of connected and/or automated vehicle technologies.


A broad, linear geographic area between places.


Everyone who uses transport services or infrastructure is a customer of the NSW transport system. Whenever a person drives, travels by train, bus or light rail, or walks or cycles they become a customer of the transport system. Our customers also use our transport networks for business purposes, to deliver goods and services, and to move freight across the State and beyond.

Customer interface

The point at which transport services interact with their customers.

Customer outcomes

The economic, social and environmental benefits which customers can expect from the transport system. Used by planners to guide investment, policy and service provision.

Customer service

Information and assistance supplied by a service provider to the people who utilise or purchase their products.

Demand management

Systems, processes and activities that are aimed at efficiently allocating available capacity to meet demand, including by influencing customers’ choices about when, where and how they travel.

Driverless Vehicles

Commonly referred to as a “self-driving vehicle” or “fully automated vehicle” is a vehicle with an automated system that can perform all driving tasks, under all conditions, that a human driver could perform.

Developer contributions

Where transport infrastructure is required, the associated development opportunities can be leveraged to contribute towards the costs for that infrastructure.

Disability Discrimination Act (1992)

A Commonwealth Act that makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person, in many areas of public life, including: employment, education, getting or using services, renting or buying a house or unit, and accessing public places, because of their disability.

Driverless vehicles

A driverless vehicle, also commonly referred to as ‘self-driving vehicle’ or ‘fully automated vehicle’ is a vehicle with an automated system that can perform all driving tasks, under all conditions, that a human driver could perform.


A remotely operated aerial vehicle (UAV) which may be remotely controlled or can fly autonomously.


An electric bicycle, a standard pedal-powered bicycle with an electric motor built-in to assist the rider with additional propulsion.

Eastern Harbour City

One of the three cities of the Greater Sydney metropolis, anchored by the Harbour CBD in the Eastern City District.

Energy Efficiency

The ratio of transport output to energy input for example vehicle kilometres per megajoule (vkm/MJ).

Energy Intensity

The ratio of energy input to transport output for example megajoules per vehicle kilometre (MJ/vkm). It is the inverse of energy efficiency.

First-mile and last-mile

A term applied to the first and final stage of the journey in which people or goods travel to a broad range of origins or destinations. An example of a last mile journey is the trip made between a train station and the final destination of a shopping centre or place of work.

Fixing Country Rail

NSW Government program that provides targeted funding for rail infrastructure enhancement projects that eliminate connectivity constraints on the NSW regional rail network.

Fixing Country Roads

NSW Government program that provides targeted funding to local councils to repair and upgrade regional NSW roads.


A collection of vehicles. This may describe all vehicles within NSW or the vehicles of an organisation, transport company or service.

Flexible transport

Transport services that are run based on the demands of individual customers, rather than a fixed timetable or route. See also on-demand (or demand-responsive) services transport.


Goods or cargo transported by truck, light commercial vehicles (e.g. vans and utes), cycle couriers, rail, aircraft or ship.

Freight as a Service

Similar to Mobility as a Service, this is a business model whereby on-demand and ridesharing concepts formulate different procedures for the supply of goods to customers which is accessed through a single account and booking interface.


Used in the Draft Regional NSW Services and Infrastructure Plan to differentiate between the different areas of NSW. The geographies have different population densities and growth rates, which influences how transport is provided and transport networks are structured. They include the Remote, Inland, Coastal and Outer Metropolitan geographies.

Global city

City that services and supports the complex and specialised economic activities of global markets.

Global gateway cities

Cities that provide state level services and facilities to support a broad population catchment while also having international connections through their airport and/or port. Canberra, Greater Sydney, Greater Newcastle and the Gold Coast are global gateway cities that support NSW.

Greater Newcastle

The area comprising five local government areas of Cessnock, Lake Macquarie, Maitland, Newcastle and Port Stephens.

Greater Parramatta

Greater Parramatta is at the core of the Central River City, encompassing Parramatta CBD, North Parramatta and Westmead, connected via Parramatta Park.

Greater Sydney

The 33 local government areas of Bayside, Blacktown, Blue Mountains, Burwood, Camden, Campbelltown, Canada Bay, Canterbury-Bankstown, Cumberland, Fairfield, Georges River, Hawkesbury, Hornsby, Hunters Hill, Inner West, Ku-ring-gai, Lane Cove, Liverpool, Mosman, Northern Beaches, North Sydney, Parramatta, Penrith, Randwick, Ryde, Strathfield, Sutherland, The City of Sydney, The Hills, Waverley, Willoughby, Wollondilly and Woollahra.

Greater Sydney Commission

An independent cross-governmental agency responsible for leading the metropolitan planning for the Greater Sydney Region.

Hub and spoke

A transport network model that provides connections (spokes) to and from key centres (hubs). The spokes link to different hubs across an area, rather than focussing on one key hub.

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART)

An independent NSW regulator that reviews and provides advice on the pricing of services such as water, electricity, gas, local government and public transport. IPART can also investigate both policy and economic matters at the request of the NSW Government.

Infrastructure NSW

An independent statutory agency responsible for assisting the NSW Government with identifying and prioritising the delivery of critical public infrastructure for NSW.

Initiatives for investigation (0-10 years, 10-20 years)

Initiatives intended to be investigated for potential commitment or implementation within the next 20 years. Those listed in the 0-10 year horizon will be prioritised for more detailed investigation to determine if they are required in the next decade. They are prioritised based on their expected benefits or strategic importance. Initiatives proposed for investigation are unconstrained by affordability and will be subject to funding and strategic business cases that consider a range of possible solutions.

Inland rail

A proposed 1,700km freight rail link between Melbourne and Brisbane via regional Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.

Intelligent Transport System (ITS)

The application of computing, electronics, information technology and communications to solve transport problems. We will review and implement Intelligent Transport Systems for managing connected vehicles and infrastructure where it is cost effective to do so.

An example of an Intelligent Transport System is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (CITS). CITS allow vehicles to communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure. They enable greater safety and can optimise the management of pedestrian movement and vehicle traffic.


A facility to transfer from one mode of transport or one transport service to another. For example, a rail station with an adjoining bus facility.

Intermodal terminal

An intermodal terminal is an area of land used to transfer freight between at least two modes of transport. It is typically used to describe the transfer of international shipping containers from road to rail and vice versa.


For the purposes of this document, the term journey refers to the door-to-door movements of a customer through the transport system. A journey may include several sections, or trips, and use more than one mode of transport.

Land use planning

The organisation of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing physical and economic efficiency, social inclusion, the protection of environmental values, amenity and health and well-being outcomes for urban and rural communities.

Light rail

An urban railway transportation system using vehicles that are capable of sharing streets with vehicular traffic and pedestrians, but may also be operating on an exclusive right-of-way such as a segregated rail corridor, tunnel or elevated structure.


The term ‘liveability’ is used in land use planning to focus on quality of life for people within a given area considering social, economic and environmental factors. It encompasses the impact of the built environment on human health and community well-being.

Local streets

Places that are part of the fabric of suburban neighbourhoods where we live our lives and facilitate local community access.

Mass transit

High capacity public transport services between major centres on fixed routes. Mass transit will typically be used on NSW’s busiest public transport corridors to quickly and efficiently move a large number of customers.


An urban railway transportation system that is associated with high capacity, high frequencies (typically turn-up-and-go, rather than timetabled) and greater automation.


The ability to move or be moved easily and without constraint.

Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

A business model for customers to access transport services in which customers can use a single account and booking interface to access a broad range of transport modes, none of which the customer owns. Examples would be allowing a customer to access public transport, car sharing and bike sharing all using the same system.


The type of vehicle or method used for a trip. For example train, bus, light rail, car, motorbike, bicycle, ferry or walking.

Mode share

The proportion of overall trips that are taken on a particular mode.


Strategically significant multi-lane roads that move people and goods rapidly over long distances.


The movement of people and goods on the transport network.

Movement and Place Framework

A framework for planning, designing and operating our road network based on a ‘one road network’ approach. It considers how different parts of the network perform different functions – moving people and goods and being places for people, particularly in centres.

Movement corridors

Places that provide safe, reliable and efficient movement of people and goods between regions and strategic centres.

Net-zero emissions

The aspirational greenhouse gas emission level which the NSW Government has targeted to achieve by the year 2050. Net-zero emissions means NSW emissions will be balanced by carbon storage.

NSW Transport Cluster

A group of agencies consisting of Transport for NSW, the operating agencies of Roads and Maritime Services, Sydney Trains, NSW Trains, and the State Transit Authority, the state’s private transport operators, a number of project delivery offices for major transport projects, and the Port Authority of NSW.

On-demand (or demand-responsive) services

Transport services that are responsive to the demands of individual customers, rather than a fixed timetable or route. They can provide new or improved coverage to areas where traditional public transport is difficult to provide. They may act as feeder services to stronger public transport corridors in the Outer Metro Area.


Factoring variables and different scenarios into project planning and design.

Outer metropolitan areas / geography

An area encompassing the local government areas of Shellharbour, Wollongong, Central Coast, Lake Macquarie, Cessnock, Maitland, Newcastle and Port Stephens.


Number of customers using a transport service during a particular period.

Place plan

Plan to deliver an integrated transport network to improve access to/from/within key places or centres by all modes.

It is the application of the Movement and Place Framework to improve the function of transport corridors to enhance the amenity of places. It will include the development of an active transport network, identifying the missing links and initiatives for behaviour change to support more sustainable travel options.

Place plans will also include travel demand management policies and tools to support travel such as car sharing and to assist workers and employers better manage travel demand.”


Refers to the development and management of the built environment to influence the character or experience of places. Successful place-making either preserves or enhances the character of our public spaces, making them more accessible, attractive, comfortable and safe.

Places for people

Streets with a high demand for activities and lower levels of vehicle movement. They create places people enjoy, attract visitors and are places communities value.


Transport services that go directly from a passenger’s origin to their destination. Outside of the private car, taxis and ridesharing services (Uber, Lyft) are the most common point to point transport modes.


A geographical area with boundaries determined by land use. For example, an area where there is an agglomeration of warehouses may be termed a freight precinct.

Private vehicles

Passenger vehicles, motorcycles and trucks, owned and operated by those with a driving license and appropriate registration.

Real time information

Information about the status of the transport network and services that are completely live or have a lag of less than a minute or two. Real time analytics refers to analysis that is performed on real time data (generally automatically and without input from a human analyst) and is then used to make decisions or take action immediately.

Regional NSW

The area of NSW outside Greater Sydney. It includes the nine regions of Central Coast, Hunter, North Coast, New England North West, Central West and Orana, Far West, Riverina Murray, South East and Tablelands and Illawarra-Shoalhaven.


The ability of infrastructure systems and services to withstand unexpected climate, weather and catastrophic events.


Business models similar to Uber and Lyft which provide point-to-point transport services in private vehicles.

Safe system approach

Planning services and designing infrastructure to integrate with human behaviour to prevent trauma. A safe system approach aims to improve the safety of all parts of the system, so that if one part fails, the other parts will protect people from being killed or seriously injured.

Satellite cities

The cities Wollongong and Gosford that form part of the conurbation of Greater Sydney.

Service (or transport service)

Service refers to transport services, generally public transport services. Examples include trains, buses, light rail and ferries. Services might also include shuttle buses and a range of privately operated but publicly accessible transport types.

Shared vehicles

Vehicles, such as cars or bicycles, made available for shared use to individuals on a very short term basis.

Sharing schemes

Private transport modes, especially cars and bikes, where the assets are utilised amongst several users, none of whom solely own the asset.

Smart Motorway

Motorways that use embedded use embedded sensors, analytics and customer feedback tools, to actively manage congestion and safety and respond to traffic incidents.

Social inclusion

The process of improving the terms on which individuals and groups take part in society-improving the ability, opportunity and dignity of those disadvantaged on the basis of their identity or circumstance.

State Infrastructure Strategy

The State Infrastructure Strategy, developed by Infrastructure NSW, provides the NSW Government with independent advice on the infrastructure needs of the State over the next 20 years.

Supporting plans

More detailed issues-based or place-based planning documents that will support the implementation of Future Transport 2056.

Three cities of Greater Sydney

The three cities envisaged by the Greater Sydney Commission are the established Eastern Harbour City, the developing Central River City and emerging Western Parkland City in and around the new airport. Each of these three cities will have their own unique identity and each must be planned to maximise liveability, productivity and sustainability.

Trade gateways

Trade gateways are locations with major ports or airports, and their surrounding precincts. They perform an essential and ongoing role to connect Sydney with locations across Australia and the world. Trade gateways are vital to NSW’s prosperity and often support large concentrations of complementary business activity and employment.

Transport Access Program

The Transport Access Program (TAP) is an initiative to provide a better experience for public transport customers by delivering accessible, modern, secure and integrated transport infrastructure such as stations, wharves and commuter car parks.

Transport disadvantage

Describes a result when certain factors such as language, age and cost result in causing less choice for when, where and how customers travel.

Transport for NSW

The statutory authority of the New South Wales Government, responsible for managing transport services in New South Wales.

Transport hub

A facility designed for transitioning between different modes, such as a major bus stop or train station. Transport Hubs for freight include freight rail yards, intermodal terminals, seaports or truck terminals. Major airports are also considered transport hubs.


Physical or mental injuries which require medical attention.

Travel choices

A Transport for NSW behavioural change initiative to help manage demand on the transport network in response to capacity constraints or disruption. It involves helping individuals and organisations prepare for and adapt to changes on the transport network.


Services with frequency equal to or under 5 minutes, requiring little to no travel planning.

Urban renewal

A planned approach to the improvement and rehabilitation of city areas with new infrastructure, improved services and renovation or reconstruction of housing and public works.

Vibrant streets/places

Places that have a high demand for movement as well as place with a need to balance different demands within available road space.

Visionary initiatives (20+ years)

Longer term initiatives that may be investigated within the next 10 years, but on preliminary evidence are unlikely to require implementation within 20 years. Some initiatives have been planned for investigation in the 20+ years as the funding or benefits may be too uncertain at this stage. Initiatives proposed for investigation are unconstrained by affordability and will be subject to funding and strategic business cases that consider a range of possible solutions.

Western Parkland City

One of the three cities of the Greater Sydney metropolis, anchored by the metropolitan city cluster of Western Sydney Airport and Badgerys Creek Aerotropolis, Liverpool, Greater Penrith and Campbelltown-Macarthur in the Western City District.

Western Sydney Airport (WSA)

The designated name for the second Sydney airport, located within the suburb of Badgerys Creek.

Western Sydney Airport and Badgerys Creek Aerotropolis

The emerging metropolitan centre of the Western Parkland City centred on Western Sydney Airport and surrounding development as the economic catalyst for delivering more jobs and diversity for jobs to the Western City District.

Whole of journey accessibility

Barrier-free access to all elements of a journey on transport systems and services made up of the pedestrian environment, the different modes of transport and the road network.

Whole-of-life costs

The total cost of a particular item or service, from initial conceptualisation through to disposal.