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End Notes

Connected and Automated Vehicles Plan

End Notes

  1. Future Transport 2056 Strategy
  3. Phillip Boyle & Associates (2016), The Impact of Car Share Services in Australia
  4. IPART report on comparing surveys on point to point use – November 2014 to February 2017.
  6. Image source:
  7. Image source:
  8. SAE international standard J3016, available at: driving.pdf
  9. Adapted from image in Technology and RIS2. Moving Britain Ahead, UK Department for Transport, 2018, p.9.
  10. Image source:
  11. National Transport Commission (2018), Safety Assurance for Automated Driving Systems: Consultation Regulation Impact Statement, Canberra.
  12. Source: NSW Road Safety Plan 2021
  13. Fildes, B., Keall, M., Bos, N., Lie, A., Page, Y., Pastor, C., Pennisi, L., Rizzi, M., Thomas, P. & Tingvall, C. 2015. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 81, pg. 24-29; Harper, Corey, Hendrickson, Chris and Samaras, Constantine 2016, ‘Cost and benefit estimates of partially-automated vehicle collision avoidance technologies’, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 95, pp. 104-115.
  14. Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (DIRDaC) (2017), Social impacts of automation in transport, Canberra, p. 16.
  15. Fagnant & Kockelman (2015), Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: Opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations for capitalizing on self-driven vehicles, pp. 8-9.
  16. Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) (2017), Costs and benefits of emerging road transport technologies, Report 146, BITRE, Canberra.
  17. Strategy& (2015), Trucking to the future. How GCC governments can open the road for autonomous trucks
  18. McKinsey estimates that the share of last mile in total parcel delivery cost often reaches or exceeds 50 per cent. Source: travel%20transport%20and%20logistics/our%20insights/how%20customer%20 demands%20are%20reshaping%20last%20mile%20delivery/parcel_delivery_the_future_ of_last_mile.ashx
  19. Corwin et al (2015), The Future of Mobility, p. 15. Figures based on Deloitte analysis accounting for vehicle depreciation, financing, insurance, fuel, and value of drivers’ time in the US market.
  20. Wadud et al (2016), Help or hindrance? The travel, energy and carbon impacts of highly automated vehicles, pp. 10-12; Shanker et al (2013), Autonomous cars: self-driving the new auto industry paradigm, p. 88.
  21. Wadud et al (2016), Help or hindrance? The travel, energy and carbon impacts of highly automated vehicles, pp. 10-12; Energy Information Administration (2017), Study of the Potential Energy Consumption Impacts of Connected and Automated Vehicles, Washington, DC.
  22. Commonwealth of Australia (2014), Green Vehicle Guide, Canberra; Climate Change Authority (2014), Reducing Australia’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Targets and Progress Review: Final Report, Melbourne.
  23. More information about the national CAV program is available on the National Transport Commission website: and the Austroads’ website: connected-and-automated-vehicles. More information about the Federal Government’s work relating to CAVs can be found here: automatedvehicles/index.aspx
  24. Adapted from image in National Transport Commission (2018), Safety Assurance for Automated Driving Systems Consultation Regulation Impact Statement, Melbourne, p.8.
  25. Source: D70F4725A938).pdf
  26. Source: NSW Road Safety Plan 2021
  27. BITRE estimates that the average car commute in Sydney is 26 minutes long (one-way)
  28. Lauren Isaac (2016), “Driving towards driverless: a guide for government agencies

  29. Road Space Allocation Policy: Greater Sydney Services and Infrastructure Plan initiative for investigation (0-10 years). Access Prioritisation Plan: Strategic plan using the Movement and Place Framework that identifies initiatives to prioritise access to interchanges, corridors and key places. Greater Sydney Parking Guideline: Development and implementation of policy, in collaboration with local government, to ensure parking will be provided in a way that is consistent with the level of access by alternative modes of transport, including addressing the future provision of commuter car parks. Regional Parking Guidelines: Development of a strategy as to how parking in regional NSW should be delivered in order to get to the best use of existing and future transport assets, increase amenity in places as well as supports freight and commercial businesses.
  30. Regional Transport Plans to be developed for each region to align with the Department of Planning and Environment’s 20 year Regional Plans. Regional Place Plans to deliver an integrated transport network to improve access to/from/ within key places or centres by all modes across regional NSW.
  31. Source: Telematics Wire, 10 February 2016
  33. Last Mile Freight Policy: Development and implementation of policy in collaboration with industry to encourage more freight movements in centres to take place outside of normal business hours.
  34. M4 Smart Motorway project,
  35. Source:
  36. More information on these projects is available on the National Transport Commission and Austroads’ websites.
  37. Australian Driverless Vehicle Initiative (2017), Preliminary Findings from the First Australian National Survey of Public Opinion about Automated and Driverless Vehicles
  39. Ernst & Young (2017), Digital Australia: State of the Nation. The 2017 edition
  40. Ernst & Young (2017), Digital Australia: State of the Nation. The 2017 edition

Six principles for Future Transport

The Future Transport 2056 Strategy is focused on six key principles for the future of mobility in the state, which together aim to positively impact the economy, communities and environment of NSW.

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